Monday, August 14, 2017

1918

From the big scrapbook of time, here’s a look at Canada in 1918-
The 'Candlestick' phone is the latest style across the country. 





January 1:  Nova Scotia has 202 telephone companies of which 128 have been organized under the Rural Telephone Act. The latter boasts 8,694 kilometres of wires and 2,413 telephones hooked up to them.


January 3: The first of 500,000 men to be selected by the Military Service Act report for the army duty today in Montreal. Those who do appear not will be sentenced to five years’ hard labour in military prison.


January 4: The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health begins gathering data on patients who contract sexually transmitted diseases.


January 4: The war has brought changes in our eating habits. Oatmeal and cornmeal consumption is up and sales of white flour is down substantially. Beef consumption is down by 58.4 percent in comparison to November 1916.


January 17: Sparked by the mandatory conscription of soldiers, Members of the National Assembly in Quebec City debate a motion that the province should leave Confederation. 

Tarzan of the Apes is one of the most popular movies this year. Will it be banned in Manitoba?
January 22: The Manitoba Moving Picture Censor Board has banned from theatres comedies and frivolous movies that made audiences laugh. The board says that Canadian men are experiencing the horrors of war,  and that people at home should not be laughing themselves silly.


January 28: Lieutenant Colonel John McCrea is dead at the age of 33. The field surgeon succumbed to meningitis and pneumonia. He will be best remembered for his poem, In Flanders Fields.


February 11: With so many men at war there is almost no one to mine coal. There is so little coal available that factories and stores are forced to close in Toronto. They will stay closed for three days. 


Women are hired to pump gas at Imperial Oil service stations, as part of the war effort.
February 18: Spread over 400 hectares (990 acres), Imperial Oil Limited opens its newest refinery in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. 


March 1: Harlan Carey Brewster, the 18th Premier of British Columbia unexpectedly dies in office at the age of 47.  His government was filled with reform accomplishments, including giving women the right to vote and introducing Prohibition. He will be interred in the Ross Bay Cemetery in Victoria.



March 11: It is now illegal to manufacture or important alcoholic beverages containing more than 2.5 percent alcohol. The law says the ban will continue until the end of the war. 

Dodge Brothers opens an automobile factory in Windsor, Ontario in 1918. The five-passenger centre-door sedan is seen here.

March 18: Parliament announces a ten percent war tax on luxury items including gramophones, gramophone records, jewellery, player pianos and automobiles.

The Victoria Cross is the nation's  highest military honour. It is awarded for valour in duty.

March 30: Squadron C of Lord Strathcona’s Horse, a.k.a. the Royal Canadians charge the Germans at Moreuil Wood, The casualties are horrific but it stops the German advance dead it its tracks. Lieutenant Gordon Flowerdew will receive the Victoria Cross posthumously.


March 30: The Stanley Cup goes home with the Toronto Arenas, who beat the Vancouver Millionaires three games to two in front of a capacity audience in Montreal.



April 1: Riots break out in Quebec City and troops are called in to stop the violence. Citizens are opposed to military conscription. Five protesters are killed hundreds arrested.

Women were influential in the prohibition era.
April 1: Alberta becomes a dry province as a total prohibition of alcohol manufacture and sales takes effect.


April 4: Labour is scarce and food supplies are running short. The federal cabinet passes an order-in-council that requires every man between the ages of 16 and 60 be steadily employed.


April 15:  Yet another war measure: The bill to introduce Daylight Savings Time has passed the Senate and is signed into Royal decree by the Governor General.


April 20: Ottawa announces that all men between the ages of 20 and 22 will register for military duty.


April 21: Credited with 80 kills, German fighter pilot Manfred von Richthofen, a.k.a. The Red Baron, is shot down out of the skies. The honour goes to Captain Roy Brown of Carleton Place, Ontario.


April 26: Women in Nova Scotia may now vote in elections.


 Workers in Oshawa, Ontario will build 13,843 Chevrolet passenger cars in 1918. 

May 8: The Canadian Automobile Association reports that we own and operate more than 200,000 vehicles. That is the third highest total in the world after the US and the UK.

May 15:  Ottawa has decided to conscript farmers, put them in uniform and send them overseas. Some 5,000 farmers demonstrate publicly against the decision.



May 15: Joseph Wiseman is born in Montreal. He will grow up to be an actor best known for playing Dr. No in the James Bond film. 


May 24: Canadian women of majority age may now vote in federal elections. Though Royal Assent has been given to the Canada Elections Act, there are many who feel strongly that giving women the vote is contrary to the laws of God and nature.  

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics gathers facts about us. It reports that 866 new washing machines are bought every week by families in Ontario.
May 24: The Dominion Bureau of Statistics is founded in Ottawa. The nation-wide information-gathering department will provide statistical snapshots of the nation. The bureau will be renamed Statistics Canada in 1971.


June 17: H.B. Thomson, chairman of the Canada Food Board, warns that there is a serious labour shortage and even though farmers have increased production there are no labourers to harvest the food and it will rot in the fields.


June 3: Quebec City, Montreal, New York City and Boston are now linked by air mail service.

Canada's first airmail stamp is issued today. 
June 24: Mail is delivered by air as Captain Brian Peck of the Royal Air Force carries 120 letters from Montreal to Toronto. The flight takes six hours because the plane needs to land periodically for refuelling.
At the age of 16, Katherine Stinson is the fourth woman in the world to earn her pilot's license. 
July 9: Katherine Stinson lands her Curtiss Special BiPlane in Edmonton. She has mail on board for delivery from Calgary. 


July 18: Nelson Mandella is born in the Union of South Africa. The revolutionary politician will spend 27 years in prison for opposing apartheid and become South Africa’s first black president. He will be made an honourary Canadian citizen in 2001.


August 2:  Some 700 mourners at the funeral of labour organizer Albert 'Ginger' Goodwin are attacked in Vancouver. Many of the protestors are army veterans. Goodwin was shot and killed by police for hiding in the woods to avoid conscription.


September 1: Some 400 school children and teachers in Victoriaville, Quebec contract the Spanish flu. It is believed they got it from soldiers returning from the war in Europe. Symptoms included tiredness and headaches. Many died in less than 48 hours.


September 16: After five years of exploring the Arctic, Manitoba native Vihjalmur Stefansson returns to Vancouver. The expedition was a great success: four new islands have been discovered and the Beaufort Sea has been mapped.

 This painting, by artist Kenneth Forbes, is entitled 'Canadian Artillery in Action, 1918'.
October 1: It took them 100 days but the 100,000 men of the Canadian Corps have broken through the Hindenburg Line. The battle began on September 27.  Our brave soldiers have captured more than 7,000 prisoners and taken 205 pieces of artillery.


October 9:  The Canadian Cavalry Brigade has advanced 12.9 kilometres today into enemy territory and taken more than 400 prisoners. The cost for our side is 168 men and 171 horses killed, wounded or missing in action.

Even children wore masks to ward off the Spanish flu. 

October 22: Vancouver is hit hard by the Spanish flu as 522 cases are now reported. Schools, churches and theatres are closed as precautionary measures. 


October 25: The 2,300-tonne Canadian Pacific Railway steamer Princess Sophia is driven off course by a wild snowstorm and sinks outside of Victoria, BC. All 346 passengers and crew went down with the ship. Many of those on board were civil servants and business leaders from the Yukon Territory. 

Painted by Colonel Louis Keene, 'Canadians Outside the Depot – Siberia, Russia'  depicts our soldiers in action.

October 27: Ottawa sends 4,000 troops to Russia to help put down the Bolshevik Revolution. They arrive in Vladivostok today.

Automotive pioneer Colonel R. Samuel Mclaughlin will be honoured by Canada Post in 2008.

November 7: Colonel Sam McLaughlin is named to the position of Vice President of General Motors in Detroit. His Oshawa, Ontario company builds Chevrolet and McLaughlin automobiles.


November 11: The end of the Great War is marked with two minutes of silence at the 11lth hour. More than 600,000 Canadians have served in uniform and nearly 60,000 have sacrificed their lives for King and Country.

Everyone is required to wear masks in Alberta as a precautionary measure against the Spanish flu.
November 11: In Edmonton 262 people are dead of the Spanish flu. The first case was reported in Alberta’s capital city only three weeks ago. 



November 19: The federal cabinet passes an Order in Council to amalgamate all government-owned railways under one banner. Starting next year the Canadian Government Railways will be known as Canadian National Railways. In the 21st Century, CN Rail will the the fifth largest railway in the world and employ 23,000 people. 


December:  The Grey Cup is cancelled for the third year in a row because of the war.

General Motors of Canada, Limited will build Chevrolet automobiles as well as the other brands in GM's stable.

December 19: General Motors of Detroit, Michigan purchases the McLaughlin Motor Car Company Limited of Oshawa, Ontario for $550,000 and 49,000 shares of stock.  GM Canada is born.


December 23: Private Thomas Ricketts of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment will receive the Victoria Cross for bravery in battle. The 17-year old soldier is the youngest man to ever receive the medal. 
Robert Laird Borden is Canada's eighth prime minister. He will step down from office in 1920.


December 31: Prime Minister Borden is in London for a meeting of the Imperial War Cabinet. He insists that each of the prime ministers in all of the British dominions have a right to take turns representing the empire at international gatherings.

Copyright to James C. Mays, 2017


Saturday, August 12, 2017

1919


From the big scrapbook of time, here’s a look at Canada in 1919.

January – Eaton’s marks the 50th anniversary of its Queen Street store in Toronto.  Sir John Eaton announces that the workweek will be reduced from six days to five-and-a—half days.



January 13: Igor Gouzenko is born in the Soviet Union. He will shock the world when he defects to Canada from the Soviet Embassy in 1945 and reveals Soviet spy secrets. He will be given a new identity to preserve his anonymity. Gouzenko will die of a heart attack in Mississauga, Ontario in 1982.


January 30: Major General Sir Samuel Steele is dead at the age of seventy. He was the third officer to be sworn in as a Mountie and led a very exciting career including Red River Rebellion, the Northwest Rebellion, the Klondike Gold Rush and the Boer War in South Africa. Steele contracted the Spanish flu. He will be buried in Winnipeg.

Some 50,000 mourners crowded the streets to pay their respects at the Prime Minister's funeral.

February 17:  Sir Wilfred Laurier died of a heart attack at his home this afternoon in Ottawa. The Liberal leader was the nation’s seventh Prime Minister, serving from 1896 to 1911. Canada’s first Francophone PM will be remembered for the construction of a second continental railway and for promoting immigration.


February 27: Robert Harris is dead in Montreal. The artist will be best remembered for his painting, The Fathers of Confederation. 

  • Aviation pioneer William Boeing and pilot Eddie Hubbard fly 60 letters from Vancouver, BC, to Seattle in Boeing’s Model C-700.
March 3: The first international airmail is delivered between Canada and the United States as a flight from Vancouver lands in Seattle. 

Artist David Milne captures conditions of Canadian troops in Kinmel Park. 
March 5: Nearly 800 Canadian soldiers riot at a camp in Kinmel Park, England. They are angry because four months after the war’s end they are still stuck in Britain and unable to get home. Troops are ordered to fire on their own. Five are killed and another 23 are wounded. Altogether 78 soldiers have been arrested for mutiny.


March 29: The Stanley Cup playoffs are suspended after five games because of the Spanish Influenza epidemic. Some 50,000 Canadians will die of the Spanish Flu.

April 17: Women in New Brunswick are given the right to vote. They may not, however, stand for election in the Picture Province.



April 28: In the belief that there must never be another war, Canada joins 41 other nations gathered in Geneva, Switzerland to sign the Covenant of the League of Nations.



May 3: Women in the Yukon Territory may vote in elections.


Labour unrest will soon lead to 30,000 unhappy workers walking off the job.
May 2: The Citizens Committee in Winnipeg publishes a newspaper that claims the Winnipeg General Strike is a Bolshevik conspiracy and will lead to a revolution.

May 3: Electricians and waterworks employees in Winnipeg walk out of work in sympathy with the city’s light and power department employees who went on strike yesterday when their demands for a wage increase was denied.


May 8: Members of the Building Trade Council have won a 20-percent wage increase and their workday is reduced to only height hours.

May 13: The Fowler Amendment is passed by Winnipeg City Council to keep workers from striking. 


May 15: A general strike is organized in Winnipeg. Manitoba’s capital is paralyzed as an workers walk off the job at eleven o’clock in the morning in support of men in the building and metal trades who have already hit the picket lines.




May 16: Winnipeg is without telephone service as operators join the growing number of workers on strike and refuse to work their switchboards.

May 17: To counter the general strike, politicians, bankers and factory owners in Winnipeg form a coalition of 1,000 members. The newly formed Citizens Committee claims the workers are Communist inspired.




May 19: Home delivery of milk and bread are permitted in Winnipeg despite the city being paralyzed by the General Strike.

May 21: Some 4,000 railway workers walk off the job in Winnipeg swelling the number of people walking picket lines to an estimated 30,000. 

May 22: The Nickle Resolution passes in Parliament. When it receives royal assent, the new law will forbid Canadians from accepting knighthoods, peerages and other titles of honour from Britain.

May 27: Streetcars grind to a halt and many hotels and restaurants are firmly shuttered in Calgary as workers show their solidarity for the General Strike in Winnipeg.


June 5: The House of Assembly in St. John’s passes the Aerial Mail Service Act and the Dominion government signs acontract with a British concern, Aircraft Manufacturing Company, to establish airmail, freight and passenger service. 

June 6: Ottawa has bailed out a number of shaky railroad companies and folded them into one crown corporation to be called Canadian National Railways. The new entity starts life $49 million in the red but the railroad has assets that stretch from Halifax to Winnipeg. 

June 14: Prime Minister Borden is of the opinion that the Winnipeg General Strike is a plot to “overthrow the government of the country.” He will not meet with leaders of the Strike Committee.



June 14: Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Brown taxi down the runway at Lester’s Field near St. John’s, Newfoundland, in a modified Vimy IV aeroplane. They will prove that it is possible to fly from the New World to the old. After flying through dense icy fog, unable to see the sun, moon or stars for much of the trip. The plane is often covered with ice as they are forced to fly only 100 metres above the ocean’s surface.  A total of 16 hours and 12 minutes and 3,186 kilometres pass before they land safely in an Irish bog. The two carry letters from the Newfoundland Post—the first international air mail. The heroes claim the 10,000-pound sterling prize for being the first two cross the Atlantic by air and are knighted by the king for their stunning achievement.


June 21: In Winnipeg, the mayor reads the Riot Act and a peaceful demonstration turns violent as the Royal Northwest Mounted Police attack a group of unarmed strikers who are marching in a parade. Two are dead and 30 injured in what will be forever remembered as Bloody Sunday.

June 26: having won important concessions for workers, the Central Strike Committee declares the Winnipeg General Strike to be over. At eleven o’clock, workers return to their jobs. They have been on strike for 41 days. 

Sir Robert Borden is honoured on this 1976 hundred-dollar bill.
June 28: The treaty of Versailles is signed in Paris, formally ending the Great War.  The Right Honourable Prime Minister Borden signs for Canada, completely separately from the British delegation.

Related image
June 30:  Charged with sedition for leading out in the Winnipeg General Strike, J.S. Woodworth says, “The atmosphere is a religious revival.” He will later found the CCF, forerunner to the New Democratic Party.

July 7: Parliament passes a bill that outlaws change brought about by force. It is aimed at quelling the Winnipeg General Strike.

A typical one-room schoolhouse. 

July 12: The British Columbia Teachers’ Federation is incorporated. Within weeks 178 teachers will walk off the job in Victoria in a bid for better wages. They want to earn $1,600 a year. It is the first teachers’ strike anywhere in the British Empire.

The Spanish flu has killed an estimated 50,000 Canadians. Based on the Model TT truck chassis, this 1919 custom-built Ford hearse was built by Canadian Commercial Body Company Limited of Windsor, Ontario. A total of 17,649 Ford trucks will be produced in Canada during the calendar year. 

July 31: Ford of Canada reports it has 2,730 employees on its payroll.

Prime Minister King will be honoured on the $50 bill in 2013.

August 7: Gathered in Ottawa, the Liberals hold a leadership convention. They choose William Lyon Mackenzie King to be party leader.


August 18: Joseph Emm Seagram is dead at the age of 78 in Waterloo, Ontario. The founder of the Seagram’s Distillery made VO whisky the most popular brand worldwide. He also bred racehorses and his stables won the King/Queen’s Plate fifteen times.


September 9:  Alexander Graham Bell and Casey Baldwin set a world record with their HD-4 hydrofoil. The boat is clocked at 114 kilometres an hour in time trials held in Nova Scotia.


September 12:  Some 60,000 Canadians gave their lives for King and Country on the battlefields. Members of Parliament in Ottawa vote unanimously to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Canada will join the League of Nations, an organization designed to prevent another war. 

September 15; The Manitoba legal system is backlogged with divorce cases. The Court of the King’s Bench has had to hire six new judges to hear the 1,100 petitions, most filed by soldiers who have returned home to find their spouses have been unfaithful. The average cost of a divorce is a whopping $200. 

A Curtiss JN-4.

September 24: The first airmail delivery is established in the Maritimes as Captain L.E.D. Stevens climbs into his Curtiss JN-4, nicknamed “Jenny” and takes off from Truro, Nova Scotia. On board the fabric-covered plywood aeroplane are 200 letters to be delivered to the post office in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. It is noted that the craft is capable of reaching speeds of  185 kilometres per hour.


October 18: It’s a boy for Joseph-Emile Trudeau and his wife Grace Elliot. Joseph Philippe  Pierre Yves Elliot Trudeau is born in Montreal. He will grow up to be Canada’s 15th Prime Minister, leading the country from 1968 to 1979 and then again from 1980 to 1984. Always colourful and sometimes irreverent, he will be responsible for bringing home the BNA Act and establishing the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Mr. Trudeau will die in 2000.



December 20: Liquor once again flows freely as Ottawa rescinds many wartime restrictions on consumer products. Parliament votes to  pardon men who avoided conscription. 


December 24: Labour leader Robert Boyd Russell is sentenced to two years in prison for his role in the General Strike. He is convicted of seditious conspiracy. 

Johns Hopkin Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland USA is one of the world's leading medical research centres.

December 29: Sir William Osler is dead at the age of 70 in Oxford, England. Born in Tecumseh, Ontario, he was a world famous physician—the first physician-in-chief at John Hopkins. His medical textbook, Principles and Practice of Medicine was the standard text for medical students for more than 30 years.


The 1919 Studebaker Light Six is built in Walkerville (Windsor), Ontario. These fast cars will be popular with rum runners and police alike as prohibition is ushered in-- in eight of the nine provinces.

Copyright to James C. Mays 2017